Economics – Free Essay Examples

Essays on Economics

If you’re looking for well-written academic paper samples on Economics—you’ve come to the right place! Our database includes an extensive collection of works provided by top high school, college, and university students. Papers are donated with the goal to help those who struggle with their writing assignments. These examples can serve a multitude of purposes: from simply being an inspiration booster, to acting as a source for conducting research and gathering materials for your own work. Another benefit of checking out samples is to see how a specific paper type is written or how a certain citation style should be implemented.

Financial Concepts and Financial Ratios

Financial ratios are vital measures used to assess the different elements of the business, which ensures its survival and profitability. The financial ratios adopted by small business owners are similar to those critical for a large corporation but have…

Treasury Bills, Bonds and Notes

According to Amadeo (2012), treasury bills, bonds and notes are some are among the safest investments. Treasury bills, bonds and notes are marketable securities that a government sells in an effort to settle debts or raise cash to run…

History of Taxation in the United States

The history of the United States of America on taxation began immediately after the country gained independence from the British government. A federal tax system that is similar to that of England was developed. The tariffs become the principal…

Investment Decision Analysis and Capital Budgeting

Introduction In making investment decisions, cash flows are considered to be more important than accounting profits. This is from a financial management’s point of view. Any company will invest its finances for the sake of deriving a return, which…

International Financial Reporting Standards Effects on Business

Introduction The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is a principal set of bookkeeping standards adopted by nations worldwide. IFRS was established by the International Accounting Standards Board (IABS). This is an international standard for the preparation of financial statements…

Investments and Managed Funds in the Australian and Global Markets

Expected (average) return The expected return is the “estimation of the value of an investment, including the change in price and any payments or dividends calculated from a probability distribution curve of all possible rates of return” (Davidson, 2011).…

“Process Outsourcing Benefits” vs. “Fair Exchange”

The following essay is a comparison of the article “Process Outsourcing Benefits” written by Duran and Duran and the article “Fair Exchange: Who Benefits from Outsourcing?” written by Barrera. The articles talk about the outsourcing of services by companies…

Effects of Pegging the Saudi Riyal to the Dollar

Saudi Arabia presents an important case for studying inflation as the country has an extremely open economy with almost no restrictions on the movement of funds and goods. As the Saudi government undertook an ambitious project of boosting up…

The Basel 3 Standard Is the Basis of Framework

Introduction On 1st June 2011, the Basel III standard was finalized, which is the basis for a regulatory framework aimed at ensuring that in future global banks have adequate capital as this is a critical step in averting a…

Whats Acquisition Refers in Firms or Mergers Fail

Introduction Acquisition refers to buying another firm so as to add to the firm’s strengths and also reduce its weaknesses (Henry, 2002). The merger is the same as an acquisition but it mostly refers to the process of combining…

Function and Operation Foreign Market in Australia

An exchange market is literally a place where money is traded and the exchange rate is determined for different currencies in the world. The main function of the foreign exchange market is to determine the prices at which goods…

Stock Market Investment: Meaning, Principles and Impact

What is the stock market? When a company needs to raise money, it has two options: it could either borrow money, or sell part of its shares in the stock market. Borrowing money is known in economic circles as…

The Monetary System of the United States

Every country has a monetary system that is put in place by the government. A monetary system refers to a set of mechanisms that are put in place by the government in order to supply money or provide cash…

Personal Finance – Corporate Taxes

Introduction The current US tax system requires that corporate be taxed 35 percent, though most corporate manage to go around this figure by maximizing on the international tax loopholes. This may not be a bad thing, since such high…

United States Dollar (USD) Overview

The US dollar has been in circulation since the 1600s before America became the United States. When the dollar first started circulating, the United States was still a collection of colonies that relied on various monetary standards. Nevertheless, the…

Stock Market Efficiency Concept

Background to Study The efficiency of stock markets is an issue that elicited massive research for several decades as investors try to find ways of maximizing the value of their money in the securities exchange market. While a section…

Credit Crisis and the Financial Market Liquidity

Executive Summary The primary goal of the paper is to understand the influence of the credit crisis on the financial market liquidity. In this instance, its impact on the inactivity of the debt markets, interest rates, and IPOs were…

Multiple Regression Analysis

The model summary (Table 1) presents relevant coefficients, which describe how the regression of the model fits the data analyzed. From the table, it is evident that the independent variable, salary per day, and the independent variables, namely, attractiveness,…

A Balanced Economic Growth

Introduction The term ‘balanced economic growth’ denotes an economic state where a developing country’s investments in various sectors are sustainable. The microeconomic theory of any firm assumes that balanced economic growth can be related to supply-side policies, factor inputs,…

Behavioral Finance and Better Investment Decisions

Decision-making process entails handling complex situations. Kahneman (1982) describes it as a cognitive practice to prefer an alternate among numerous potential substitute scenarios. Decisions cannot be made by entirely depending on one’s resources. According to Kahneman (1982), failure to…

Comparison of Financial Markets Between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Financial markets of Oman and KSA As an integral part of global economy, the uncertainties in the Europe and the USA have seriously impacted the financial market trends of Saudi Arabia and Oman along with their stock market, although…

Capital Budgeting Techniques

Introduction “Capital budgeting is a planning process used to determine whether an organization’s long term investment projects are worth the funding of cash through the firm’s capitalization structure (debt, equity or retained earnings)” (Gervais, Heaton & Odean, 2011, p.…

The Capital Budgeting Decision: Overview

Important consideration The basic considerations in capital budgeting decisions are: Time value of money: According to this factor, a dollar received today is valued highly compared with a dollar to be earned in the future (Bierman & Smidt, 2007).…

Cost Management: The Operating Budget

The operating budget is a management tool for controlling the financial aspects of a firm. Although organizations prepare operating budgets annually, they can breakdown the budget preparation into either monthly or quarterly stages. The operating budget contains the revenues…

Alrajhi Bank Financial Analysis

Introduction Financial analysis involves the assessment of performance of a business. A business in this case can be a company, a firm, a corporation or a financial institution. In this paper, the aim will be to analyze the financial…

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

Abstract The report offers the general idea and understanding of an administrative agency at the federal level. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has been used the case study. The report discusses the meaning and purpose of creating an administrative…

Monetary Policy and Managed Liquidity

Introduction Financial crises are some of the worst intractable global occurrences. The crises always differ in scale but rather exhibit similar effects on the affected populations and economies. The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) is arguably the most infamous financial…

CVP Income Statement, Break-Even Analysis, and Sales Mix Study

Essential features of a cost-volume-profit income statement The cost-volume-profit income statement is critical in the decision-making of a business. This type of income statement differs from the other type of statements used to report profits. This statement of income…

Financial Performance Comparison of Islamic and Conventional Banks in UAE

Dubai Islamic Bank Financial Analysis for the Fiscal Period that Ended on 30 September 2012 in AED’ 000. Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio = Total Current Assets / Total Current Liabilities Total current assets=93,050,371 Total current liabilities=70,490,459 Current ratio=93,050,371/70,490,459=132% A…

Investment Project Dell and Lenovo Stock

Meeting Investment Prerequisites The decision to invest this money will be based on a carefully planned framework to provide concepts, tools, and techniques necessary to achieve financial and investment goals. The investor will clearly define and meet the investment…

The Financial Crisis

Introduction Numerous studies have put forward the government housing policy as the main cause of the 2008/2009 financial meltdown. In essence, the entire crunch occurred due to several factors, which were not addressed in time. For instance, the moves…

Money Market Mutual Fund

Introduction Money market mutual fund refers to a mutual fund required by law to facilitate investments in low risk securities. The fund cushions investors from losses that result from credit, market and liquidity risks. Evidently, most companies prefer using…

Country Risk Analysis – UAE

Introduction The country risk analysis involves an evaluation of economic, political, and business risks of a particular country which may pose a significant influence on businesses. The county risk analysis is conducted to find out the risks associated with…

The Customer Relationship Management in the Banking Industry in UAE

Introduction Over the years, the banking industry has evolved to adapt to changes brought about by technological advances. The internet provided one such opportunity for the banking industry to develop e-commerce. Customers are increasingly demanding for managed relationships. E-commerce…

Apple Inc. International Strategy: The Context of International Business

Company overview Apple Inc. is a publicly listed American multinational company specializing in the production of high technology electronic products, computer hardware, and software (Apple Inc. 2010). Under the electronic hardware category, the company products include personal computers, media…

Microfinance in Islamic Banking

Introduction The core aspect of microfinance focuses on providing funding opportunities through loans or grants to marginalized people for investment into income generating activities and therefore, they become self-reliant (Rahim & Rahman, 2007). Many institutions, including the World Bank…

Financial Statements: Comprehensive Study in Accounting

Four Basic Financial Statements Financial statements are the basic means of communicating crucial accounting information about a corporation to interested parties. The four main financial statements include the income statement, balance sheet, statement of cash flows and statement of…

The Internet and Social Media Impact on the Sports Industry

Introduction The sporting industry is one of the fastest developing industries in the world. According to Kaser and Oelkers (2008), sports have been considered as entertainment other than investment. Sports have been in existence since time immemorial. This scholar…

Financial Analysis of ExxonMobil

Assets The total assets of the company increased from $331,052 million in 2011 to $333,795 million in 2012. The increase in total assets amounted to $2,743 million. This is equivalent to a 0.8286% increase. The table presented below shows…

The Principles of Islamic Banking

Several scholars have tried to understand customers’ preferences in selecting the banks (Islamic as well as conventional) to deal with. Different customers have different perspectives about Islamic banking, but the general idea remains the same. Such preferences differ from…

Process and Product Design

Customer needs Customer needs were put into consideration so that the product could have good sales. The needs were considered because all products are aimed at meeting customer needs (Lawson 2006; Lin, Wang, Chen & Chang, 2008; Sundin &…

Islamic Financial System

Introduction Islamic finance is a financial system governed by the rules of the Holy Quran. According to its teachings, the only trustee of Allah’s wealth is human and, therefore, should be managed according to his commands. Islamic banks have…

The Ways in Which Banking Firms in the UK Control Economic Activity

Banks are the financial institutions that provide services of currency exchanging, deposits and other lending activities (Cecchetti & Schoenholtz, 2011). They are also responsible for portfolio management. In England, banks do not play a part in the determination of…

Financial Crisis Impact on Saudi Market

Abstract The financial crisis caused by the subprime house mortgage loans and several other financial and economic causes has had a severe negative impact on almost all the economies of the world. Banking and financial services were the worst…

Islamic Banks and Conventional Banks in Malaysia Comparative Study

Introduction Two main types of banking models exist in the banking sector, viz. the conventional [commercial banks] and the Islamic banking patterns. Commercial banking operates based on a pure financial intermediation model. Consequently, the banks borrow from savers and…

International Finance Test the PPP Theory in Turkey and USA

The aim of the essay is to statistically test the PPP Theory. The theory is tested on the monthly inflation and exchange rate data derived for two countries, Turkey and the USA, from the OECD database (OECD). A simplified…

Analyses Al Hilal Bank as the Case

Executive Summary Islamic banking continues to be amongst the fastest expanding financial institution within the UAE banking industry. The fact is that Islamic banking has continued to operate for approximately over thirty years particularly in the Middle East. In…

Capital Asset Pricing Model

Introduction The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) specifies the relationship between risk and the required rate of return on assets when they are held in well-diversified portfolios. It assumes that investors are rational and they choose among alternative portfolios…

Asian Financial Crisis and Its Effects

Executive Summary The global economy has proved that countries are interdependent and not closed economies. Thereby, the economic advancement of one country often depends on how a given country interacts with another country. Investors who have embraced capitalism and…

The Accountant’s Role in the Organization

The single biggest positive impact that accurate accounting can have on an organization In cost accounting, accountants have the role of planning, designing, and controlling strategies that assist in making quality decisions on costing, pricing, budgeting, inventory management, and…

Banking Industry and Bank Analysis and Forecast

Introduction The latest economic crisis that resulted from a subprime crisis showed how several factors could affect the ability of banks to maintain their finances under stress. The consequence of an increase in the U.S interest rates and the…

Retail Industry Analysis

First, we have oil prices. Since Saudi Arabia leads in the production and exportation of oil, the Saudi economy can easily be affected by any fluctuations in oil prices. Apart from affecting the nation’s economic growth, the effect will…

Islamic Banking in Malaysia and Lessons for Other States

Introduction Islamic banking has nowadays become a viable alternative to conventional banking system for believers and non-believers of Islamic faith. Islamic banking system was initially developed to cater for the needs of Muslims. However, it has expanded to provide…

Risk Management in Islamic Finance

Introduction Islamic finance is one of the most effective financial organisations whose services and practices are characterised with high level of efficiency and effectiveness. The Islamic finance involves the process of restructuring the financial transactions in effort to satisfy…

Audit Risks and Materiality: Financial Audits

Audit risks and materiality have a significant effect when applying the Generally Accepted Auditing Standards. It is risky that an auditor may not appropriately modify his or her opinion because of material misrepresentation of financial statements by the client.…

Economics: Theory of National Income

A country’s national income is used to measure the goods and services produced within a period of one year. The theory of national income illustrates how wealth flows within an economy. In addition, the theory of national income can…

The Tiger Economies: China and India

Principle Since the early and mid 19th century economic recessions, few countries have been able to enjoy fully the proceeds of economic well being. Those that have achieved industrialization are a home for less than a fifth of the…

Meaning and Difference Between GDP and Gpi

Introduction In the early 1990s, it was believed that in human development and ecological economic growth the supply of money was reflective of loss in well-being. To calculate a country’s growth trend, one has to get the calculations that…

Public Finance: The Designing of Tax Systems

Introduction In many countries, taxation forms a single leading source of government revenue for funding national budgets. Other non-tax revenue sources such as foreign grants play a comparatively less significant role in sustaining public budgets than the role played…

The Financial Statement Analysis CTY and TRS

Executive Summary This report presents the financial statement analysis for Country Road Limited (CTY) and the Reject Shop Limited (TRS) for two financial years alongside other significant information from the stock markets such as the stock price movements. Based…

Australian Economy: the Potential of the Gold Market

Executive summary The recent uncertainties experienced by the financial markets have seen many investors shift their wealth from riskier investments to more secure ones where returns are guaranteed and predictable. The prices of stocks have declined with investors incurring…

The Definition and Role of Inflation

Introduction Inflation is known to affect the economic climate of a country. This could be short-term or long-term, depending on the level of intervention and other economic forces. If not properly dealt with, it could undermine the economic growth…

Factors Influencing Exchange Rates

Introduction An exchange rate is a rate at which one country trades against another on the foreign exchange market. For example, if the United States exchange rate for the Canadian dollar is $1.55, this means that one U.S. dollar…

Financial Statement Application: Balance Sheet

Introduction Accounting majorly involves the preparation of financial reports which form the basis of the organization’s data to rely on when making decisions. Some of the commonly prepared financial reports include budgets, cash books, cash flow statements, income statements,…

Investment Opportunity: Financial Statement Analysis

Introduction Every organization aims to maximize profit while minimizing costs. The operations of an organization in each business environment are aimed at ensuring that the organization achieves its objectives. The financial performance of an organization is important for investors.…

International Finance and Globalization

Introduction The demise of the Cold War in the 1990s was followed by a reaffirmation of ideals, principles, and values of liberal democracy courtesy of some western countries led by the United States and its allies. Capitalism and its…

Recent Developments in the Banking System Regulation

Introduction UK banking system, as is the case with the entire global banking industry, is progressively recovering from the global economic turmoil which started in 2007. The economic crisis affected UK banks in varying degrees depending on a myriad…

International Finance

Impacts of Capital inflows on Emerging markets Capital Inflow is the actual increase in the available funds from foreign sources to aid in foreign development. It has led to international globalization where thus facilitating capital mobility from developed nations…

Australian Market and Financial Crisis in 2008 and 2009

Introduction Stock markets are usually considered as the main indicators of the investor’s trust and interest in the country’s economy as well as the importance of how a country can facilitate its investors and businessmen to develop a healthy…

Corporate Financial Management: Project Management

The capital budgeting process involves project generation, process evaluation, project selection, and project execution. These steps are necessary but more may be added to make the process more effective. It can be well appreciated that the capital budgeting process…

Accounting: Debt Finance

Introduction Businesspersons, both in large-scale and small-scale businesses are constantly looking for capital to finance their operations. Other than owner’s capital (equity), there are a number of institutions offering debts to businesses; financial institutions, microfinance organizations, and government loans…

Management’s Dividend Policy

Czinkota (2007) emphasized the company’s dividend policy affects clientele investment options and is relevant to the shareholders’ tax obligations. The research focuses on the company’s dividend decision as one of the critical aspects of management’s financial activities. The research…

International Trading System. Multinational Enterprise

International trade refers to business that takes place between various countries on the international arena. The international trading system was established to ensure that all the countries that participate in international trade benefit evenly from the trade. International trade…

Budgetary Control and Planning

Introduction There are many uncertainties that prevail in the business world and therefore, for managers and stakeholders to compete favorably or spend wisely in the rapidly shifting conditions, they need proper tools and proven budget control techniques to predict…

Banking: Customers and Their Needs

The popularity of online banking in the UK has been increasing drastically in recent years. It is estimated that 41.4 million regular users of the internet use online banking (UK payments Administration 2011, p. 12). Financial institutions have embraced…

Banking Crisis. Policy-Making Points

Introduction As the world economies recover from the just ending financial crisis, the United States of America seems to have carried the largest burden with the collapse of major financial institutions, for example, the Lehman Brothers. While many attest…

Saudi Arabian British Bank Analysis

Introduction The abbreviation SABB Bank stands for the Saudi Arabian British Bank which is a joint stock company that was established in the year 1978. The bank officially took over the operations of the British Bank which had established…

Global Effects of U.S. Financial Crisis

Introduction Economic problems in general and financial challenges in particular are not new on the world stage. It is difficult to imagine of a point in time when there is no country in the world experiencing economic difficulties. Even…

Oil Prices and the Stock Market

Introduction It is quite logical for a person to assume that when oil prices increase, the stock market will drop because of the negative correlation of the two variables. It makes sense that when oil prices increase, fuel will…

The Elements of Financial Statements

Introduction The income statement in other words known as the profit and loss account is one of the most important financial statements prepared in any business enterprise. It is prepared on an annual basis and shows the profit or…

Financial Crisis in Highly Globalised Markets

Introduction Globalization has been escalated by the interdependence between nations around the world. To facilitate this interdependence, countries have been trading their currencies in the foreign exchange market. This has led to the emergence of the global financial markets…

Asian Financial Crisis and the Role of the IMF

Introduction The financial crisis that hit Asian countries in late 1997 was caused by the implementation of financial policies by the International Monetary Fund. The IMF had formed programs meant to support the economy of Asian countries; Korea, Indonesia…

Bank Loans and Deposits Role in Saudi Arabia Monetary System

Introduction Banking plays a significant role in an economy; the main function of a bank is receiving deposits from the public and lending or investing the deposits. In conventional banking, deposits earn an interest and a borrower pays a…

Market Efficiency Hypothesis Overview

Introduction The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) popularly known as the Random walk theory asserts that stock prices fully reflect information about their past performance and probable future events. Reliance on the power of markets proved fleeting when the tension…

Financial Statements in Accounting

The rapid rate of globalisation is one of the reasons that most organisations are aiming for perfection in their output products and services. This perfection will not be soundly achieved if proper decisions are not made. For most decisions…

General Electric Company’s Common and Preferred Stocks

General Electric The main driving challenge for GE is based on the question “Why predict the future when you can create it?” The company has a great history built on research and great inspiration in a bid to create…

Monetary Policy of the United States Over 2000-2010

Introduction Monetary policy is all about the measures taken by a central bank of a country to regulate its money supply and interest rate to control inflation and stabilize its currency. The monetary policy is one of the mechanisms…

Stabilizing Economic Environment and Quantitative Easing

Introduction Economic development among societies is the single most important goal pursued by people across the world. Every individual, community, society and nation strives to achieve higher levels of development in order to avail higher and better living standards…

The Rise of China and the Future of Asia

Introduction East Asian economies seem relatively stable compared to most countries in Asia and the other parts of the world. This is even though they have experienced serious challenges ranging from economic problems, cold wars to physical wars among…

Foreign Businesses in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has been on the recent late been attracting many foreign businesses into their country. The Saudi Arabian market’s ability to attract investment is due to reasons such as favorable investment climate, government policies, and its strategic position.…

Macroeconomic Policies: Review

Introduction Macroeconomics deals with the study of aggregate indicators of the economy. They include gross domestic product, unemployment rates, inflation and price indices. Macroeconomics is understood through the development of models that simplify the workings of the economy. Output,…

Budgeting and Planning in Organizations

Aswath (2002) defines a budget as the listing of all planned expenses and revenues. This is the blueprint of the savings and spending that a particular organization shall be operating within the confines of it. The stated limits should…

Taxation and Net Income According to Corporate Structure

Being the standard type, a business structured as a C corporation subjects its shareholders to double taxation. First, the business files Form 1120 and pay a corporate tax rate of 40% on net income after expenses. Every shareholder that…

Oil and the Stock Prices in Saudi Arabia and US Market

Oil is one of the most important sources of modern energy and countries which are well endowed with the resource are equally doing well in terms of economic growth. It is also important to note that the quantity of…

Non Profit Organizations in the United States

Introduction Starting from the mid-eighteenth century, Voluntary organizations have significantly contributed to the wellbeing of the society in the United States of America. From those early days up to mid nineteenth century, less importance was placed to the organizations…